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北京打击“黑中介”投诉举报热线开通首日 23家违规中介机构被查处

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: TrendForce:2016年中国LED封装产品价格仍将继续下降 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

分析称三四线城市库存过高 以降息回暖可能性小

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

《狼厅》(Wolf Hall),PBS,4月5日播出。这一季最引人注目的选角,《国土安全》(Homeland)的主演达米恩·刘易斯(Damian Lewis)将在该剧中饰演亨利八世,两获托尼奖的马克·里朗斯(Mark Rylance)将饰演托马斯·克伦威尔(Thomas Cromwell),这部经典改编剧改编自希拉里·曼特尔(Hilary Mantel)的畅销历史小说。
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Grab your rolling bag, and pack your patience. The holiday air travel season is about to begin. And if you want to have a stress-free trip, the best advice we can give is to fly west.
在经历了长达几十年的许诺后,新的基因疗法终于开始有了一些真实的好成果。不过就像所有的新型疗法一样,基因疗法需要向公众准确地传递如何治疗以及治疗背后的原理,这和疗法本身一样具有挑战性。
butterfly
The Spring Festival Travel Rush, also known as Chunyun in Chinese, or Spring Festival Travel Season / Transportation Peak is considered to be the largest annual migration.It is the special period when China faces an extremely high traffic load, which results in great transportation problems, especially on the railway services.
买securities很不security(n 安全)

28 June
你可能已经在使用谷歌日历了,但你使用的方式是否正确呢?告诉你一个秘诀:只要把在那个日子和那个时候会真正发生的事情记录在谷歌日历上就行。同时利用iPhone提醒记住那些时间敏感性不太强的事情(即不是那些精确到小时和分钟的事情)。遵循这一战略有助于你保持更清醒的状态。
DeMarcus Cousins, Serge Ibaka and Lou Williams were all dealt in advance of Thursday's 3 p.m. ET deadline, leaving role players like Taj Gibson and P.J. Tucker as the biggest names to move right before the buzzer.
In P2P lending, borrowers are matched with investors, who are encouraged to put their money into the loans due to higher returns than they could get at state banks.
Total Program Cost: $181,500 in either Philadelphia or San Francisco

Footnotes

  • 重场景体验下的家居业 考验的究竟是啥?
  • 达奇斯说:强大的财务性能和一系列新的特性使得邻客音成为2012年吸引用户的公司。这样的吸引力有助于公司在2013年从专业的业务网络转向活跃的交流平台。

卢彦说,该工程也包括建造连结北京市中心与通州的基础设施建设、下水道与污水处理和建造能源设备。随着建设环球影城主题公园和国家大剧院的训练设施的落成,文化工程将会提供更多的就业机会。
法国
其次,尽管人们还守着老的观念,现实却已经发生了变化:供应链管理——也就是确保货物以尽可能低的价格和尽可能高的效率到达目的地——已经成为一项高科技、高风险的行业了。它要求从业者“硬件能力”和“软件能力”缺一不可,而能达到这种要求的人才实在很少。
If you are working your butt off and not getting paid enough to pay your bills, you might be overqualified and underpaid for your position. Go find a job that pays what you deserve.
move动+ment表名词,“行为或结果”→运动
从该剧2007年首播至今,我们似乎患上了哈德利·弗里曼(Hadley Freeman)在《卫报》(The Guardian)上所称的“广告狂人狂热症”(madmenalaria)。

立邦绿建·无忧之旅纵贯十六城 助推中国建筑保温隔热行业标准化

References

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