HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Tue, 01 Dec 2020 02:22:56 GMT 老表TV在线观看

重庆一道路深夜塌70米 大爷两月内救多人性命

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 超大特大城市今年将调整积分落户政策 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

周学军:明年仍是LED产业痛苦期 替换潮3年达顶峰

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

“有个员工的父母跟公司联系,告诉我们说,他们的儿子辞职了。”
The China International Robot Industry Summit, held on Tuesday in Shanghai, said the sales and growth rate of industrial robots hit records in 2017. Among industrial robots, 37,825 were domestically manufactured, up 29.8% year-on-year.
这是光明的季节,也是黑暗的季节……
Newcomers: Among the 15 newcomers on this year’s list are South Korean President Park Guen-hye (No. 11); Lockheed Martin CEO Marillyn Hewson (No. 34); CEO Tory Burch (No. 69); Spanx founder Sara Blakely (No. 90) and Baidu CFO Jennifer Li (No. 98).
The announcement comes from the British Fashion Council (BFC), who surveyed designers ahead of the shows and found none of the 80 designers in the September line-up would be using fur.
Best Companies rank: 12
“…fell asleep.”

除了印度,其他金砖国家——巴西,俄罗斯,中国和南非——也削减了对美国政府债券的持有。
e出,leg腿:露出大白腿………高雅的;但是靠这个优雅也是比较悲哀的一件事
祝来年好运,并取得更大的成就。
Her device uses carbon nanotubes to detect the presence of lead. Thousands of US water systems are reportedly contaminated by lead.
到了明年3月,这些明日之星中很有可能会有1-2个人脱颖而出,可以成为球队基石。

Footnotes

  • 家居建材市场 8月好戏连台
  • 12. Scientists modify photosynthesis to boost crop yield

Tesla:In an effort to blunt criticism about slow refueling times for battery-powered cars, Tesla TSLA -1.54% starts to roll out of a network of battery-swap stations. CEO Elon Musk must hope he can outdo Shai Agassi’s Better Place, which tried to build a whole company around battery-swaps before going bankrupt in 2013.
单词survival 联想记忆:
农林牧渔和服务业是应届毕业生签约行业中薪资水平较低的行业,月薪分别为3347元和3115元。
The reason why Blake looks the same today as he did in high school is because he's only four years removed from his high school years. Just imagine how monstrous Blake will look with another year or two of NBA training under his belt.
There is a natural human tendency to idealize and whitewash days of yore, to cast them in the rosy glow of the mind’s eye.
An odd assortment of S&P sectors led the market higher this year, with some strange bedfellows atop the leaderboard. Even if a manager had foreseen that the healthcare sector would gain 27% this year, would they have guessed that utilities would be in the No. 2 slot, with gains of 23%? Unlikely.

新一轮竞争 家居卖场与家装公司谁将活得更好

References

View Abstract