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细数中国陶瓷行业十八怪

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2014收官之际 沈城家居市场打出新战术 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

飞利浦照明与欧美企业合作,抢占智能家居市场商机

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

"My hair has turned white, half because of housing prices and half because of you reporters." JIANG WEIXIN, member of the CPPCC National Committee and minister of housing and urban-rural development, responding to media questions about government measures to curb housing prices
n. 购买,购买的物品
学员平均年龄:37岁
Comic skit “You’ve Got Trouble”(Sun Tao, Qin Hailu etc)
We will push forward with structural adjustment in agriculture.
Phil Baty, editor of THE rankings, said: "China has introduced powerful policy drives, backed with serious funding, to produce world-class universities. In 2015, the country announced its excellence initiative, which aims to establish six of its universities in the leading group of global institutions by 2020."
Whatever she needs to invoke the weightlessness of life in our new not-normal, she takes. "Is it the end of an era? Is it the end of America?" she intones in "When the World Was at War We Kept Dancing." "No, it's only the beginning."

其他人将想方设法利用技术来帮助人们减少上网时间。谷歌(Google)前雇员特里斯坦哈里斯(Tristan Harris)发起的“时光莫虚度”(Time Well Spent)运动正在吸引人气,该运动鼓励设计者理解他们所控制的微妙的心理力量,以解决其所称的“数字注意力危机”。据Recode报道,曾经在Pinterest和Facebook工作的蒂姆肯德尔(Tim Kendall),计划成立一家专注于对抗设备上瘾的初创公司。
Chinese manufacturers:Coming to the U.S.? Warren Buffett’s BYD says it is arriving in 2015 and Geely in 2016 but we’ve been hearing that someone was coming since at 2006. The refinement of Chinese cars is the issue. With more than 80 local automakers producing 524 different models in China, R&D money is spread too thinly to produce meaningful results.
Rio - home to the 2016 Olympics and a host city for the 2014 football World Cup - beat Greece as the most searched-for destination.
"You can no longer have some countries go first and others come in later, because there is no more time," said Glen P. Peters, a scientist at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo, who helped compile the new numbers. "It needs to be all hands on deck now."
n. 感动(激动,愤怒或震动), 搅拌,骚乱

Footnotes

  • 京津冀之下的环京楼市:廊坊保定供销两旺
  • Fifteen Chinese nationals have been charged with developing a fraud scheme in which they paid imposters to take entrance exams, including the SAT, and gained acceptance to elite American colleges and universities, the US Department of Justice said on Thursday. Conspirators were paid up to $6,000 each time they used counterfeit Chinese passports to trick test administrators into thinking they were the person who would benefit from the test score, a federal grand jury charged.重点单词

注册人数:503人
1月份,沃尔玛美国公司总裁兼首席执行官比尔西蒙承诺,这家全球最大零售企业将在今后五年内聘用10万名老兵。此外,作为美国最大的私营雇主,沃尔玛还表示它将邀请光荣退伍不到一年的老兵加盟公司。
2. Take baby steps.
有人将一杯滚烫的咖啡洒在了求职者身上。
deputy
Get Out

央行:稳健的货币政策要更加注重松紧适度 保持汇率的基本稳定

References

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